|April 11th, 2016, 01:50 AM||#1|
Join Date: Apr 2016
The republican cure or what is the republic
The republic is the best form
of government, if you can keep it
History and political theory offer a society, seeking a way to coordinate efforts of its members, in order to meet challenges it faces, a number of effective forms of government. One of such forms of government, the most efficient yet requiring constant protection from both bona fide and de dolo malo “improvers” is the republic.
So, what is the republic? In political theory the republic [lat. rex publica or the commonwealth] entails the harmonic combination and balancing of three political elements, discovered by Plato – people, aristocracy and king (in contrast with modern democracy where the role of the people is nominally increased, but de facto limited), which is achieved through republican principles:
1) the principle of federalism – organization of the state as a federal republic, that includes regions and districts as its parts;
2) the principle of defined rights – all state rights are defined and enumerated in constitutions of the republic, regions and districts, and all rights that are not enumerated in the constitutions belong to citizens;
3) the principle of electoral census – acquiring citizenship is not automatic, but subject to ethnic and religious qualifications, completion a one-year state military or civil service, passing a citizenship exam on state language, state-forming people history, government system of the state as citizenship conditions;
4) the principle of checks and balances – while the primacy of the legislative branch is formally acknowledged (and president or governor does not hold a veto power in relation to the laws of legislature), the state powers are divided vertically and horizontally, so that different state bodies check, balance and control each other (in contrast with modern democracy, where equality of state powers is formally acknowledged, while de facto the role of executive branch is increased), the recall of every state official by simple majority of citizens, two-term limit for every state position to which a citizen can be elected or appointed, non-direct election of the president (elected by the electoral college in conformity with the people’s will expressed in a prior referendum on the candidates), non-direct election of the higher chamber of the legislature, senate (senators are elected by the lower-level assemblies);
5) the principle of people’s representation - requiring the existence of two-chamber legislatures on republican, regional and district level, that represent the interests of citizens, direct submission of bills to legislatures on initiative of citizens, the supremacy of the legislative branch is formally acknowledged, specifically, president or governor does not hold a veto power in relation to the laws of legislature;
6) the principle of permanently aligning interests - requiring the vote of a simple majority of legislators or citizens to elect executive officials, the vote of a qualified (2/3) majority of legislators to adopt laws, and the vote of a qualified (2/3) majority of citizens in a referendum in case of major state issues (something that the citizens of the U. S. and EU countries are currently denied);
7) the principle of supremacy of people’s will – the will of a qualified (2/3) majority of citizens, expressed in the referendum, supersedes all other state legislation, any question proposed to be resolved in the referendum cannot be prevented to be resolved in the referendum;
the principle of absolute of freedom of speech – the state bodies of the republic cannot impose any limitations on derivative-natural right to absolute freedom of speech that constitutes inalienable part of the dignity of (wo)man, neither sanction in any way written and spoken words of a (wo)man. Additionally, all state legislation contrary to the derivative -natural right to absolute freedom of speech is null and void and without legal force since the moment of adoption. In fact, the presence of any limitations of derivative-natural right to absolute freedom of speech or any sanctions in retaliation for using derivative-natural right to absolute freedom of speech in the legal system of the state always points out to desire of particular persons or small groups (elites) of the state vainly imagining themselves gods and falling below beasts to usurp state power, or the desire of the majority of citizens of the state vainly imagining themselves gods and falling below beasts to oppress, rob, and eventually eradicate prosperous but unpopular minorities, that as history demonstrates always leads to the destruction of the state and the destruction of the state-forming people;
9) the principle of unity of judicial system – the creation of a unified system of common jurisdiction with all judges electable by majority vote or by lot or confirmed by majority vote, accessible to all citizens, voluntary jurisdiction of specialized courts in peacetime, autonomy of religious courts;
10) the principle of absolute state sovereignty, supremacy in all cases of state legislation over foreign treaties and other legal norms of international law.
In modern conditions the republic is free and strong nation-state, which provides for fast economic development, respects the national and cultural traditions of the state-forming people and protects the political and economic rights of its citizens. The republic is based upon a proposition, that fundamental rights of the people are not and cannot be the result of some rational plan (“public agreement” in Rousseau’s terms), but are the result of a slow organic historical development by trials and errors, in terms of Edmund Burke. The republic rejects the haughty democratic doctrine of some “universal values”, further expressed in concepts of universal “human rights” and allegedly universal mechanism of “protection of human rights” – “modern democracy”. The “modern democracy” doctrine in turn serves to justify manipulations that global economic, social and ethnic elites undertake through mass media and the electoral process in order to stay in power in the developed countries and to meddle into the internal affairs of the developing countries to control and pillage their natural, financial and human resources for the benefit of the elites. In free and strong nation-state, the republic, every citizen can influence the political decision-making process or try to win elections, and no one asks him whether he is a democrat or not. Towards developing countries the republic establishes a common standard of judgment – the protection of fundamental rights (Life, Liberty, Property and the Pursuit of Happiness) of the people, who live there, and is looking whether the situation there is improving or not. If the situation is improving, as in Chile of General Pinochet, the republic protects such developing countries from the ventures of democratic thieves, who want to become rich at the expense of the population of developing countries under the guise of “protection of human rights” or “promotion of democracy”. In a republican view, the effective methods of protection of people’s rights are developed through slow organic development by trials and errors, while taking into account national and cultural traditions, and not created through some universal rational plan. While the fundamental people’s rights are absolute, the mechanism of their realization and protection depends on historically conditioned national and cultural peculiarities of each nation-state, and no state should impose its mechanism of protection (e.g. modern democracy) on the other state. As George Washington said: “Mind your own business, do not interfere into other people’s conflicts, the reasons of which you can never fully understand, lead by example of your behavior, not through force or fraud, develop business relationships with everyone who is ready to accept your friendship”. The important republican principles is also neutrality – renunciation of aggressive war; non-participation in international organizations, associations and unions, while at the same time being open to cooperation with all countries on strictly bi-lateral basis; supremacy of national legislation over international law.
The past of the republican political system is the concept of republican values. To them belong:
1) Religion and morals in a religious sphere – which entails a service to God in one’s place in the society; love and fulfillment of God’s word, in particular self-restraint and self-improvement; conduct of a godly life, in particular care and support of a family, relatives and other people. The absolute moral value for a republican is human life, and moral is what creates, supports and prolongs human life;
2) The republic in a political sphere – free and strong nation state, which provides for the fast economic development, respects national and cultural traditions of the state-forming people and protects the political and economic rights of its citizens;
3) Nationalism (love to one’s people and respect of the national ways of behavior and thinking, reflected in national traditions, culture and language) and patriotism (love to one’s land and state) in public life. Based on the concept of state-forming people (the people that is the largest at a particular nation-state, that has created the nation-state and has invested its labor and resources into its development for generations and whose existence is connected to the existence of that nation-state) that is formed primarily by blood (3 of 4 grandparents belonging to the state-forming people), and secondary by soil (incorporation of representatives of the common civilization, legally residing in that nation-state for a at least five years and fulfilling electoral census requirements) nationalism has developed effective principles of organization and direction of the society for the general welfare of all its residents;
4) Free competition, free enterprise and free-market economy in economy. Free enterprise, conceived in the 18th century and full developed in the 19th century, provide for the genuine freedom of economic action for each man without usury and monopolism, characteristic of the colonial capitalism of the beginning of the 20th century, or excessive corruption, government regulation and disrespect of property rights, characteristic of the globalist capitalism of the end of the 20th century, which in turn, as stated by economic science and supported by the experiences of historic development of nation-states, allows for fast elimination of absolute poverty and reduction of absolute poverty among the large masses of people. As economic research demonstrates through the state for its effective functioning cannot be redistributed more than 30% of GDP and the direct government expenditures cannot exceed 15% of GDP, thus the difference should be transferred to People Support Fund in form of an additional tax on the rich. From People Support Fund are subsidized establishment and professional training of the businesses of the poor, which would allow for justice in economic sphere, understood as the principle, that every man should survive and get its share of the created wealth, which leads to the absence of significant social conflicts and prosperity of everyone residing at the territory of the republic. In free-market economy the nation state also assist in creating and supporting new strategic industries, creates economic infrastructure and provides it with different kinds of resources – the preconditions of fast economic growth and development. The free-market economy also entails non-participation in international economic organizations (as WTO) and conduct of independent tariff and currency policies in the national interests;
5) Family values in family life – traditional family roles of husband and wife (man works, woman rears the children); large family (6 and more children); live of a few generations of extended family under one roof with mutual support and care; abstaining from adultery, divorce, mixed-race marriage; control of parents over upbringing, education, medical treatment, values and discipline of their children; moral-strengthening family leisure; homeschool education;
6) Classical education in education. The goal of classical education is ideology-neutral transformation of knowledge and methodology of acquiring knowledge. Classical education teaches a man to differentiate between his views on the subject of discourse and objective facts concerning the subject of discourse. The man who received a classical education would not be affected by the propaganda of “modern democracy” and “market reforms”, which aim at people’s feelings, but would take a look on the whole collection facts, and not only on a selected few presented by the democratic media. It’s interesting that for the democratic media “objective” does not mean neutral, e.g. representing the whole specter of views on the subjects: now only those views are presented that correspond to pre-established “democratic” criteria. Therefore the information, presented by the democratic media, is not reliable under the laws of classical logics, even though they repeatedly deny it, and it is difficult to find the Truth even comparing different news sources. Classical education teaches a man to think rationally e.g. in accordance with the laws of logics, correctly and respectfully conduct a discourse. Classical education also gives student knowledge on the roots of the European civilization through careful study of Greek and Roman civilization. Such a student knows well different types of conflicts, ways of their resolution and consequences of such ways for “nothing is new under the Sun”. He is also well learned in theories and instruments of ruling a country or a local commonwealth, which makes him a well prepared citizen and patriot, who can enjoy and extend Freedom, for the amount of Freedom in the state is directly proportionate to preparedness and learnedness of its citizens. The feelings of the man, who received a classical education are ennobled by the classical culture, therefore cynicism is much less common in a republic. Such a man comes to the sphere of human action be it economy, law, statesmanship, science, ready and able rationally explore world around him and bring into it something particularly his, new, which makes this world better and different. Such a man however is difficult to manipulate, because he knows the difference between feelings and facts, his head is full of knowledge, not ideology, and for him the modern democracy (or more exactly mob rule) has never been an ideal political system. Therefore the world of the 19th century, where classical education was much more widespread, was freer, richer (15% of the poor vs. 30% nowadays) and better. However the elites don’t like such kind of education: because it is difficult, much more difficult to rule over educated, independent, hard-working people who received classical education than over uneducated people seeking pleasures and depending upon a state, who received a humanistic education; thus it is more and more difficult to find a classical educator or educational institution. Unfortunately, only a few people today have a classical education. Classical education is not free from its disadvantages, e.g. some of the youth become restless nihilists and atheists, but overall classical education and modern universalistic or humanistic education create human resources of strikingly different qualities.
Classical education developed into classical science that researches exclusively material world – all objectively existing physical objects and natural events that can be seen with human eye and/or heard with human ear, weighted and measured completely comprehensible by human mind that is able to provide fast scientific and technical progress. Classical science does not research objects and events that cannot be seen with human eye or cannot be heard with human ear, cannot be weighted and cannot be measured, does not waste effort and resources thereupon, as classical scientist rationally discovers with mind material world and acts in the material world.
7) Academism in arts includes classical music and classical art in the High Culture, and people’s or country music and rock-music in mass culture. In High Literature academism is represented by the classical literature, in mass literature by detective stories. Academism promotes the European Ideal of Beauty (the beauty of the man’s and woman’s body, strength of spirit, beauty of nature, describes the Creator’s deeds and great historical events), inspires men to independent rational thinking and development through hard work and great achievements, identifies the deficiencies of the state, economic and public structure and help to rectify them.
The moral basis for the republic is the ideas of John Locke: justice understood as the single standard of protection of natural and derivative-natural rights, administration of justice, and electoral census (in contrast with the democratic equality, that implies that all men are equal in every sphere of human activity and thus should forcefully equalized by the state without regard to their national and cultural backgrounds, abilities and results); the system of natural rights – defined rights, among which are Life, Liberty, Property and the Pursuit of Happiness are given by God, and man cannot take natural rights or derivative natural rights (the rights that describe the content of natural rights and are largely enumerated in the first 10 Amendments to the U. S. Constitution) away. Only in limited number of cases, when these rights are realized with significant damage upon the corresponding rights of other people or public morals, can the mechanism of realization of natural or derivative natural rights (but not natural or derivative natural rights themselves) be limited and such limitation are thoroughly checked by the courts in accordance with the strict scrutiny standard. As John Locke wrote: “A man has defined rights that he obtains not from the state. And a man cannot be denied these rights by the expressed will of the majority or by the decree of the conqueror. The idea that the expressed will of the majority, nor matter how large, establishes what is right or just is as absurd and unacceptable as the idea that what is right or just is established by the edict of the ruler. As the ancient Greeks were seeking the situation where the people and its rulers were subject to the same laws they established, the man slowly and painfully learns that there exist constant and objectively existing laws, which neither rulers nor peoples can change: they can only obey them. The state is just the convenient tool that exists due to the respect towards the Law of the Lord and the natural rights of the people residing therein, granted to them by the Creator of men and universe”. Therefore, free and strong nation state – the republic is the mortal enemy of any kind of tyranny or totalitarianism in all of its forms, be it despotism - unlimited rule of one man, or oligarchy – unlimited rule of a group of man, or democracy – unlimited rule of the majority of men. The concept of the rule of law, characteristic of the republican political system, entails that the state is run through adoption of written, unchangeable, strict but just laws, which are based on objective facts and do not contradict to the Law of the Lord and natural rights of men, who reside on the territory of the republic, but instead take their national and cultural traditions into account. Republican laws are obeyed both by common men and rulers. Republican laws are mainly aimed at the protection of the people from external (from other countries, their resident organizations and citizens) and internal (committed by the organizations and citizens of the republic) fraud and coercion. In republic there also exists the concept of the public morale – which protects the national and cultural traditions of the state-forming people, in particular bans child murder (“abortions”), sexual perversions, cloning, forced euthanasia, forced medical treatment, drugs, prostitution, pornography, limits extra-marriage affairs, divorce, drinking and smoking, strives for the high moral principles of public officials , residing on the territory of the republic (in contrast with modern democracy, where the concept of public morale is destroyed). In order to protect public morale in the republic exist the system of religious courts, which imposes fines and corporal punishment as the punishment for breaking public morale – the more serious cases are transferred into the courts of common jurisdiction. In the republic there exist no censorship, and all points of view are discussed freely, no matter how wild, strange and unusual are they. The protection of public moral and the absence of censorship allow the republic to create the high-quality social infrastructure – the networks of invisible ties in families, local commonwealth and non-government organizations as well as large amounts of high-quality human resources, because the people undertake the necessary capital investment in order to improve their lives while having no need to worry about excessive democratic taxation and persecutions, while refraining from destructive behavior. All this allows the republic to provide for fast economic growth and economic development. However in the republican prosperity there is its main weakness – the prosperous population of the republic wish to weaken the strict republican competition and therefore is less willing to protect the republic and republican values from different democratic “improvers” and “human rights” and “quality” “activists”, who use such slogans in order to make money. Therefore the republican should be ever vigilant and strictly counteract all such democratic attempts through effective propaganda and law enforcement.
In order to make political decisions in the republic there exist the republican political process, which include a number of stages:
1. There appears a new republican idea, the source of which can be each citizen or organization of the republic.
2. It is determined the administrative level, at which it should be reviewed.
3. Mass media, legislatures and citizens thoroughly discuss its effectiveness, efficiency and correspondence to the state rights at appropriate administrative level and to the natural and derivative natural rights of men.
4. The new republican idea is integrated in the context of the old tried effective behavior, worked out in response to the external stimulus. If a new idea does not give significant visible advantages it is rejected.
5. If there exists the resistance towards the new republican idea, the views of the resisters are carefully and fully listened to. In case, that the appropriate administrative level lacks the power to accept a new or a new idea contradicts the natural or derivative natural rights of man, new idea is immediately rejected, otherwise a reasonably long period of time is given for people, whose interests are touched by the new idea, to effectively change their behavior.
History clearly demonstrates that everywhere where the republic was instituted, it brought peace, prosperity, wealth and happiness with it. In Ancient Greece of the 6 century BC the creation of the republic by Solon led to the unprecedented prosperity of Athens and the whole Greece under Pericles in the mid 5th century BC; in Ancient Rome the creation of the republic in the 5th century BC led to destruction of most enemies of Rome, including the mighty Cartage and to thriving Roman economy, culture and arts. What is interesting that the ancient thinkers understood well the difference between the republic and democracy. For example Roman statesman Cicero, who understood the nature of democracy well, wrote: “Without checks and balances of the republic, the king becomes a despot, aristocracy turns into oligarchy, democracy leads to mob rule, chaos and dictatorship”, agreeing with other Roman statesman Seneca, who wrote that “democracy is bloodier than wars and tyrants”. Cicero also understood the nature of a democrat: “Under democracy the rules is also an unreasonable and unprincipled man, who obtains the support of the people by giving them riches taken from other people”. The creation of the American republic- the moral predecessor of the modern republic, where republican ideals were written into the Declaration of Independence and the second Constitution of the United States of America (where democracy is not mentioned at all, yet the republic and all regions (states) are guaranteed the republican form of government) made the United States in 120 years by the beginning of the 20th century the leader of the world with the highest living standards, population grown by 40 times and territory grown by 5 times. In modern world the examples of such free and strong nation-states - the republics are Singapore, Malaysia and partially Switzerland. As their development experiences demonstrate, in the republic without democracy the state is getting freer and stronger, and people are getting richer.
Thus only in the republic the United States can find the way out of crises and the sure bedrock for prosperity. Even more, the republic creates pre-conditions for increase of American territory over the whole North American continent, which many Americans want, because under the republic there can be created and selected human resources in necessary quantity and with necessary quality.
| || |
|cure, republic, republican|
|Thread||Thread Starter||Forum||Replies||Last Post|
|A cure for HIV?||roastpork||Science and Technology||6||November 6th, 2014 06:57 AM|
|Joint Statement by Kingdom of Denmark, Republic of Finland, Republic of Iceland, King||The White House||The White House||0||September 4th, 2013 12:20 PM|
|Joint Statement by the United States of America, Republic of Estonia, Republic of Lat||The White House||The White House||0||August 30th, 2013 12:40 PM|
|Single payer is needed cure, says republican health care exec.||waitingtables||Current Events||72||July 11th, 2013 06:58 AM|
|There Is No Cure For............||Stan Fan||Sports||36||August 28th, 2010 08:16 PM|