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Old November 13th, 2008, 01:41 PM   #141
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Today in History: November 13

The Capture of Montreal





The Embarkation of Montgomery's troops at Crown Point,

Sydney Adamson artist,

The Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine, January 1903,

Prints and Photographs Division
I have the pleasure to acquaint you with the surrender of Chambly to

Major Brown and Major Livingston, which last headed about three hundred

Canadians…The troops are in high spirits…Col. Warner has had a

little brush with a party from Montreal. The enemy retired with the loss

of five prisoners and some killed…Some of the prisoners (Canadians)

are dangerous enemies, and must be taken care of. General Richard Montgomery to the Continental Congress,

October 20, 1775.

Continental Congress and Constitutional Convention, 1774-1789

General Richard Montgomery led American troops in the capture of Montreal on November 13, 1775. The American presence in Canada proved short-lived. Just weeks later, British victory at Quebec forced a hasty retreat to New York.

After joining Benedict Arnold, who had led American troops through the Maine wilderness to Canada, Montgomery attacked the city of Quebec on December 31. Montgomery was killed in the failed attempt to capture the city, and Arnold retreated to Fort Ticonderoga in northeastern New York.

Although Arnold was a loyal American officer in 1775, four years later he began corresponding with British officer Major John André. Eventually, Arnold earned infamy for betraying American secrets to the British.

Learn more about the Revolutionary era:
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Old November 16th, 2008, 09:25 AM   #142
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Today in History: November 16

Oklahoma



Oklahoma entered the Union as the forty-sixth state on November 16, 1907. Derived from the Choctaw Indian words "okla," meaning people, and "humma," meaning red, Oklahoma was designated Indian Territory in 1828. By 1880, sixty tribes, forced by European immigration and the U.S. government to relocate, had moved to Oklahoma.



Cheyenne Sun Dancer, Oklahoma, 1909.

Taking the Long View: Panoramic Photographs, 1851-1991

Congress opened part of the region, which the United States had acquired in 1803 under the terms of the Louisiana Purchase, to settlement by non-Native Americans in 1889 and organized the Oklahoma Territory in 1890. In 1907, the state of Oklahoma incorporated what remained of Indian Territory.



Wind Contorted Cottonwood near Grandfield, Oklahoma,

between 1891-1936.

American Environmental Photographs, 1891-1936: Images from the University of Chicago Library

Ben Stimmel was among the first non-Native Americans to take advantage of the opportunity to settle in the Oklahoma Territory. A native of Ohio, Stimmel had spent the 1880s mining gold in White Oaks, New Mexico. "We lived in White Oaks until September 1889," Stimmel recalled, "when we set out in a covered wagon drawn by four horses, to go to Oklahoma to buy a farm. We had two children and two hound pups."

They settled in Hennessy, Oklahoma, Stimmel remembered, "where we built up a real nice farm and lived for twenty five years." But on April 20, 1912, disaster struck:
A cyclone hit our farm. It took the roof off of our house, and destroyed our barn and all out buildings. We had a hundred Indian Runner ducks and after the storm we found them about half a mile from the house in a mud swamp, all dead. The family saw the cyclone coming and all got in the storm cellar. After the storm I salvaged what I could from the farm and left Oklahoma for Lincoln County, New Mexico, where they don't have cyclones. I have lived here ever since. Ben Stimmel,

Carrizozo, New Mexico.

American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1940



Driving Cattle to Pasture,

Bliss, Oklahoma Territory,

Thomas A. Edison, Inc., May 9, 1904.

America at Work, America at Leisure: Motion Pictures from 1894-1915



Oklahoma: Celebration of Literature,

Judy Sprinkle, illustrator,

Norman: Oklahoma State Department of Education, 1983.

Language of the Land: Journeys Into Literary America



Richard Rodgers (seated at piano) and Oscar Hammerstein II from The Richard Rodgers Collection.

Richard Rodgers (1902-1979) and Oscar Hammerstein II (1895-1960) collaborated on some of the most popular musical comedies of the twentieth century. Their first joint effort was the 1943 production Oklahoma.

Learn more about Oklahoma in American Memory:


Oklahoma Refugees, California, Dorothea Lange, photographer, February 1936.

America from the Great Depression to World War II: Photographs from the FSA and OWI, ca. 1935-1945

In the mid-1930s, Farm Security Administration (FSA) photographer Dorothea Lange traveled to Oklahoma to document the devastating effects of the Great Depression and seven-year drought, which had reduced the Southern Great Plains to a "Dust Bowl" unsuitable for farming. Lange's work includes numerous images of Oklahoma farm families in and en route to California in search of a better life.

Search on Oklahoma in America from the Great Depression to World War II: Photographs from the FSA and OWI, ca. 1935-1945 to see Lange's photographs, as well as work by her FSA colleagues Arthur Rothstein, Russell Lee and Walker Evans.

Learn more about the Dust Bowl exodus. Voices from the Dust Bowl: the Charles L. Todd and Robert Sonkin Migrant Worker Collection, 1940-1941, provides a concise history of the economic and ecological forces that pushed many farm families out of Oklahoma. This collection consists of audio recordings, photographs, manuscript materials, publications, and ephemera documenting the everyday life of residents of FSA migrant work camps in central California where many Oklahomans took refuge.

The Oahu Railway





Hawaiian Government Survey…,

C. J. Lyons,

1881.

Map Collections

On November 16, 1889, the Oahu Railway and Land Company (OR&L) began operating on Hawai`i's third largest island, Oahu. The brainchild of Massachusetts native Benjamin Franklin Dillingham, the railroad made it possible to move agricultural products from inland to port, stimulating the local economy and providing a valuable transportation route for decades.

Dillingham arrived in Hawai`i in 1865 as first mate of the sailing ship Whistler. Prevented by a fractured leg from returning to sea, Dillingham made Oahu his home and began investing in its future. Within four years, he was a partner in a local hardware company supplying goods for the growing sugar industry. Dillingham also invested in a dairy business. He was interested in real estate, but failed to raise the money to purchase the land for speculation. In 1888, Dillingham obtained a concession from the Hawai`i legislature to build the OR&L and succeeded in raising the money to build this venture. He scheduled the opening of the short line-railway, which originally ran nine miles, to coincide with the birthday of Hawaiian King Kalakaua.

Early revenues for the OR&L were meager, but as Dillingham had foreseen, the railway's presence stimulated land sales and new agricultural ventures, including pineapple and sugar plantations. By the early 1900s, the expanded 160-mile railway cut across the island, serving several sugar plantations, pineapple farms, and the popular Haleiwa Hotel. As Oahu's pineapple, sugar, and tourism industries grew, profits for Dillingham's railway followed suit.



The Port City of Honolulu,

c1913.

Taking the Long View: Panoramic Photographs, 1851-1991

An additional, and significant, source of revenue for the OR&L came from passenger fares to and from the U.S. Army's Schofield Barracks near the center of the island. From 1909 until the late 1930s, and again during World War II, the OR&L transported troops across Oahu, which had few cars and often shoddy roads. After World War II, the railway's fortunes changed as passenger revenues plummeted and trucks began taking over the agricultural business. The OR&L abandoned service outside Honolulu and its harbor in 1947. In 1972, it closed its remaining service to the Iwilei canneries and docks. The OR&L right-of-way and terminal are on the state and National Register of Historic Places.
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Old November 17th, 2008, 01:51 PM   #143
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Today in History: November 17

Justice For All Children Is The Great Ideal In Democracy —Grace Abbott

Progressive Era reformer Grace Abbott was born in Grand Island, Nebraska on November 17, 1878. Reared in a family of activists, Abbott grappled early on with political and social issues. Her Quaker mother participated in the Underground Railroad and the woman suffrage movement; her father was a leader in state politics.



Grace Abbott, Chief of the Children's Bureau of the Dept. of Labor, August 24, 1929.

Prosperity and Thrift: The Coolidge Era and the Consumer Economy, 1921-1929

After graduating from college and teaching high school, Abbott left Nebraska in 1907 for the University of Chicago. While completing a master's degree in political science, she joined the residents of Jane Addams's Hull House. For the next nine years, Grace Abbott lived at Hull House while gaining national recognition as an advocate for immigrants.

As head of the Immigrants' Protective League in Chicago, Abbott established a way station for recent arrivals near the main Chicago railroad terminal. She worked for legislation regulating the employment agencies that so frequently exploited immigrants and convinced officials at Ellis Island to extend their protection and guidance beyond New York Harbor. At a 1912 congressional hearing, Abbott testified against implementation of a literacy test designed to stem the flow of southern and eastern European immigrants. Despite her efforts, a literacy qualification was instituted in 1917.



Girl in Cherryville Mill, Textile Mill, Cherryville, North Carolina, Lewis Hine, photographer, November 1908.

National Child Labor Committee Collection

Prints & Photographs Online Catalog

That same year, Abbott left Chicago to join the staff of the Department of Labor. Assigned to the Children's Bureau, a division charged with investigating and reporting on issues pertaining to child welfare, Abbott began implementing the first federal law restricting child labor. In 1918, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the legislation. Disappointed, Abbott used her influence to ensure wartime contractors did not rely on child labor.

After the war, Abbott briefly returned to Chicago. By 1921, however, she was back in Washington. Now heading the Children's Bureau, Abbott extended the reach of her division. With passage of the Sheppard-Towner Act in 1921, the Bureau administered a grant-in-aid program to the states for child and maternity health care. Despite the success of the program, Congress rescinded the act in 1929.

The Children's Bureau led the campaign for a constitutional amendment limiting child labor. Although never ratified, the amendment set a precedent for New Deal legislation regulating the labor of children under the age of sixteen.

Grace Abbott's government career ended in 1934. After years of fighting for funding and protecting the existence of the Children's Bureau, the tide had turned in favor of the causes she championed. Confident that the work of the Children's Bureau would continue under the administration of Labor Secretary Frances Perkins and relieved that, through her urging, the Social Security Act would provide assistance to mothers and children, Abbot retired from government. She died in Chicago in 1939.

Grace Abbott was one of many turn-of-the century women striving to ameliorate the social problems arising from industrialization. In the process, reformers like Abbott created new professional opportunities for women in government administration. Several American Memory resources provide a glimpse into the life and times of this remarkable woman.



Three Suffragists Casting Votes, 1917.



By Popular Demand: "Votes for Women" Suffrage Pictures, 1850-1920
The Suez Canal





On the Suez Canal,

William Henry Jackson, photographer,

December 1894.

Around the World in the 1890s: Photographs from the World's Transportation Commission, 1894-1896

After ten years of construction and costs more than double the original estimate, the Suez Canal opened on November 17, 1869. Stretching 101 miles across Egypt's Isthmus of Suez, from Port Said in the north to Suez in the south, the waterway connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Indian Ocean.

In 1888 the Convention of Constantinople was signed—"respecting the free navigation of the Suez Maritime Canal" and opening the canal to ships of all nations. The longest canal in the world without locks, the Suez Canal is one of the world's most heavily traveled shipping lanes and the fastest crossing from the Atlantic to the Indian oceans.

In 1894, a group of Americans visited the Suez Canal as part of a tour to promote U.S. trade and gather information about foreign transportation systems. Unlike the journalist Nellie Bly, their contemporary who circumnavigated the earth in just seventy-two days, the World's Transportation Commission (WTC) made its worldwide journey in three years. Readers of Harper's Weekly kept abreast of the trip through an illustrated series on the commission's tour.

William Henry Jackson, the WTC's photographer, who had extensive experience photographing American railroads and geological survey expeditions, took nearly 900 photographs en route. Around the World in the 1890s: Photographs from the World's Transportation Commission, 1894-1896 chronicles the trip through these photographs. North Africa, India, Thailand (formerly Siam), Oceania, China, and Russia were among the many places that the Americans visited.
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Old November 22nd, 2008, 04:58 AM   #144
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Today in History: November 22

John F. Kennedy Assassinated





President John F. Kennedy, 1961.

By Popular Demand: Portraits of the Presidents and First Ladies, 1789-Present
America's leadership must be guided by the lights of learning and reason or else those who confuse rhetoric with reality and the plausible with the possible will gain the popular ascendancy with their seemingly swift and simple solutions to every world problem. President John F. Kennedy,

Remarks Prepared for Delivery at the Trade Mart in Dallas, November 22, 1963

(Never Delivered)

On Friday, November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was shot as he rode in a motorcade through the streets of Dallas, Texas; he died shortly thereafter. The thirty-fifth president was forty-six years old and had served less than three years in office. During that short time, Kennedy and his wife, Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy, became immensely popular both at home and abroad.



The President's Car, Carrying the Wounded President John F. Kennedy, Speeds Toward Parkland Hospital, 1963,

New York World-Telegram & Sun Newspaper Photograph Collection.

Prints & Photographs Division Online Catalog

For the next several days, stunned Americans gathered around their television sets as regular programming yielded to nonstop coverage of the assassination and funeral. From their living rooms they watched Mrs. Kennedy, still wearing her blood-stained suit, return to Washington with the president's body.

Many witnessed the November 24 murder of accused assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald. Viewers also followed the saddled, but riderless, horse in the funeral cortege from the White House to the Capitol where Kennedy lay in state. They saw the president's young son step forward on his third birthday to salute as his father's coffin was borne to Arlington National Cemetery.



Arlington National Cemetery, Cemetery Gates in Autumn,

Theodor Horydczak, photographer,

circa 1920-1950.

Washington as It Was: Photographs by Theodor Horydczak, 1923-1959

Television played a significant role in the collective mourning of American society. For the first time, the majority of citizens witnessed the ceremonies surrounding the death of a beloved leader, creating a shared experience of the tragedy. Even now, television programming maintains public memory of the assassination by transmitting vivid images from those difficult days to successive generations.

Despite this intimate experience of events surrounding the death of John F. Kennedy, the nation failed to achieve closure. Oswald never confessed, and the facts of the case remain mysterious. The Warren Commission's conclusion that Oswald acted alone failed to satisfy the public. In 1976, the House of Representatives' Select Committee on Assassinations reopened investigation of the murder. The Committee reported that Lee Harvey Oswald probably was part of a conspiracy that may have involved organized crime.

Interest in the assassination remains acute. Congress enacted the President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act on October 26, 1992. Signed by President George H. W. Bush, the legislation opened most government records to the public and facilitated use by designating the National Archives and Records Administration sole repository of government files pertaining to the assassination.



For more information on the Kennedy presidency and assassination:
An American Beauty





Lillian Russell, "Maid of Timbuctoo," 1903

African-American Sheet Music, 1850-1920: Selected from the Collections of Brown University

On November 22, 1880 Lillian Russell made her debut at Tony Pastor's Theatre in New York City. Within weeks, the beautiful blonde added a prominent role in The Pie Rats of Penn Yann to her stage credits. This spirited "travesty" of Gilbert and Sullivan's The Pirates of Pennzance made Lillian Russell an instant star. For the next 35 years, Russell maintained her position as one of the first ladies of the American stage.

Born Helen Louise Leonard in 1861, "Nellie" was raised in a middle class home. Trained in music and foreign languages, in the late 1870s she moved with her mother from Chicago to New York in order to receive advanced voice instruction. Soon, she met Tony Pastor, the vaudeville impresario who transformed the slightly seedy variety format into respectable family entertainment. Billed as "Lillian Russell, The English Ballad Singer" she was seen at Tony Pastor's by almost everyone in New York—except her mother.
For more than a month I succeeded in appearing in Tony Pastor's every night, without my mother receiving so much as an inkling of my new occupation. This was easier than it sounds because mother was a busy woman…But one night at dinner I had a sudden premonition that something was wrong. I raised my eyes and found the glance of a newspaperman who lived in the same house…"Mrs. Leonard," he said, "do you know that there is a girl named Lillian Russell, who sings at Tony Pastor's Theatre, who looks enough like your little Nellie to be her sister?" Lillian Russell, American Vaudeville As Seen By Its Contemporaries, (New York: Random House, 1984) page. 11-12.

Assured that Tony Pastor's Theatre was "respectable," that night Mrs. Leonard sat in the audience and joined in the thunderous applause following her daughter's performance.

Hearing her sing in Pie Rats of Penn Yann, Sir Arthur Sullivan pressured Russell to leave Tony Pastor's for an equivalent role in the legitimate production. She refused to break her contract with Pastor. By 1888, Russell commanded $20,000 a year headlining the Casino Theater in New York City. There she took on some of her most acclaimed roles including Gabrielle Dalmont in An American Beauty—a title that became her soubriquet.

Entering her second decade on the stage, Russell was as popular as ever. Touring with the Casino company made Lillian Russell a household name. The turn of the century found Russell older and fuller of figure, but still highly paid and much in demand. In 1899, she moved away from light opera and toward vaudeville by joining Lew Fields and Joe Weber's theatrical company. At the Weber and Fields Music Hall and with their touring company she starred in productions including Whirl-I-Gig, Hoity-Toity, and Woop-Dee-Doo. In September 1900, Russell and other performers entertained at a benefit for Galveston flood victims.

From Woop-Dee-Doo





"Maid of Timbuctoo," J.W. Johnson and Bob Cole, 1903.

African-American Sheet Music, 1850-1920: Selected from the Collections of Brown University
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Old November 23rd, 2008, 04:38 AM   #145
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Today in History: November 23

The Battle of Chattanooga





Chattanooga, Tennessee As Seen from Bragg Hill, Missionary Ridge,

Copyrighted for J. C. Anderson, Trustee,

1887?

Panoramic Maps

On November 23, 1863, the Battle of Chattanooga began. Over the next three days, Union forces drove Confederate troops away from Chattanooga, Tennessee, into Georgia, setting the stage for Union General William T. Sherman's triumphant march to the sea.

The Battle of Chattanooga was one of the most dramatic turnabouts in American military history. Northern forces captured the steamboat and railhead center shortly after their September defeat at Chickamauga. In the early fall of 1863, Rebel forces moved into the mountains and bluffs overlooking Chattanooga, preventing the Union Army's escape.

Commanding posts at Lookout Mountain, almost 2,000 feet above the Tennessee River Valley, Confederates laid siege to Chattanooga, firing down on river and rail traffic entering the village from Union-controlled western Tennessee. From Missionary Ridge, east of Chattanooga, they blocked the only rail line to the northeast and Virginia. Stymied by the Confederate blockade, U.S. troops, under command of Major General William S. Rosecrans, seemed destined to fall.

Their fate changed in mid-October. On October 19, General Ulysses S. Grant replaced the beleaguered Rosecrans with Major General George Thomas. Shortly thereafter, Major General Joseph Hooker moved into the area with 20,000 Union forces. Grant followed on October 22. Within days, Union engineers constructed a pontoon bridge west of town and were directing supplies into Chattanooga. In mid-November, General Sherman arrived with 17,000 more men. The Union Army was ready to fight.



View from the Top of Lookout Mountain, Tenn.,

February 1864.

Taking the Long View: Panoramic Photographs, 1851-1991

On November 23, Thomas' troops overtook Confederates occupying Orchard Knob between Chattanooga and Missionary Ridge. The next day, in what is known as the "battle above the Clouds," Hooker drove his men on to victory at Lookout Mountain. On November 25, the last day of battle, the Union Army crushed the Rebel line at Missionary Ridge, sending the Confederates further south toward their final defeat.

Learn more about the Civil War:
  • Search across the American Memory pictorial collections on Lookout Mountain to find more photographs of this historic battle site, including a view of Craven House, where some of the battle's most brutal fighting took place.
  • View additional Civil War photographs. Browse the subject index of Selected Civil War Photographs. The collection's timeline, charts the war from the South's secession in 1861 to the surrender of Confederate troops in April and May 1865.
  • Locate other Civil War features by searching the Today in History Archive on the term Civil War. Read, for example, about other Civil War battles, including the First Battle of Bull Run, the Second Battle of Manassas, and the three day Battle of Gettysburg.
  • Browse Civil War Maps by subject, place, creator, or title for views of more than 2,600 Civil War maps and charts as well as atlases and sketchbooks.
Franklin Pierce





President Franklin Pierce, circa 1855-1865.

By Popular Demand: Portraits of the Presidents and First Ladies, 1789-Present
The great objects of our pursuit as a people are best to be attained by peace, and are entirely consistent with the tranquility and interests of the rest of mankind. Franklin Pierce, Inaugural Address, March 4, 1853.

Franklin Pierce, 14th president of the United States, was born on November 23, 1804 in Hillsboro, New Hampshire. Like his predecessor James K. Polk, Pierce was a little-known candidate retired from national politics when the Democratic Party summoned him to run for president.

Pierce, whose father had been governor of New Hampshire, was elected to the New Hampshire legislature at the tender age of 25. He went on to represent New Hampshire in Congress (1829-1833) and in the U.S. Senate (1837-1842). With the exception of a brief stint as an officer in the Mexican War, Pierce spent the next decade practicing law and serving as federal district attorney in Concord, New Hampshire.

As president (1853-1857), he opposed abolition in the interest of promoting sectional harmony and economic prosperity. Pierce paved the way for construction of a transcontinental railway and promoted settlement of the Northwest. During his administration, the United States acquired 30,000 square miles of territory through the Gadsden Purchase. Pierce's accomplishments were overshadowed by his handling of the controversial Kansas-Nebraska Act, which constituted a critical national policy change in regard to expansion of slavery.

Blamed for heightening sectional tensions within the Democratic Party and the concomitant rise of the new Republican Party, Pierce failed to win the Democratic nomination in 1856. Fellow Democrat James Buchanan succeeded Pierce in the White House.



Pierce Homestead, Hillsboro, New Hampshire, 1961. Samuel Gottscho photographer.

Architecture and Interior Design for 20th Century America: Photographs by Samuel Gottscho and William Schleisner, 1935-1955

For more photographs of the Pierce homes in Hillsboro and Concord, New Hampshire, search on Pierce in Architecture and Interior Design for 20th Century America: Photographs by Samuel Gottscho and William Schleisner, 1935-1955.
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Old February 20th, 2009, 02:35 AM   #146
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The above 4-way split _ screen image says a lot about this evidence. Of what portion we _ can see of it, this object looks incredibly very much like an anatomically _ correct humanoid skull or perhaps a humanoid statue head sticking out of the ground staring sightlessly _ upward from its dark empty eye sockets and its general position suggests an unseen body_ laying on its back under the ground. Note the anatomically general size and shape, the forehead, the empty socket dark eye holes, the bone bridge between the eye holes, the nose projection, and the beginnings of one side of the mouth. Information just not to be ignored.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
 
Old October 2nd, 2009, 09:05 AM   #147
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[ame=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G3MtTfR7mXs]YouTube - When Joe Lieberman Calls[/ame]
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