Dates that marked your country.

Mar 2017
Matosinhos Portugal
Dates that marked Portugal.

June 24, 1128

Battle of São Mamede - Trapped between D. Afonso Henriques and his mother D. teresa, after the victory of D. Afonso Henriques with the troops of the Portucalenses barons against the troops of the Galician Count Fernão Peres de Trava, D. Afonso Henriques self- is Sovereign of the Portucalense County.

October 5, 1143

Treaty of Zamora - Resulting from the peace conference between D. Afonso Henriques and his cousin D. Afonso VII of Leon and Castile. Considered the date of the independence of Portugal and the beginning of the Afonsina dynasty. D. Afonso Henriques or Afonso I - First King of Portugal.

August 14, 1385

Battle of Aljubarrota - Portuguese troops commanded by D. João I of Portugal and his constable D. Nuno Álvares Pereira, and the Castilian army and its allies led by D. João I of Castile. The result was the final defeat of the Castilians, the end of the crisis of 1383-1385 and the consolidation of D. João I, Master of Aviz, as King of Portugal, the first of the Avis Dynasty. The Luso - British Alliance came out strengthened from this battle and would be sealed a year later with the signing of the Treaty of Windsor and the King 's marriage. D. joão I with D. Filipa de Lencastre.

August 21, 1415

Conquest of Ceuta - D João I sends Portuguese troops to North Africa with the goal of increasing the expansion of the Christian faith by increasing territories where Christianity could be implemented. The geographical position of Ceuta would allow to control the entry and exit of the ships coming from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean and vice versa through the Strait of Gibraltar, so that the coast of the Algarve stopped being attacked by pirates originating or based in the Muslim city.

1434: Folding Cape Bojador

Gil Eanes sent by Infante D. Henrique had as objective to double the Cape Bojador known like "corporal of the fear" that never had been doubled due to the frequent fogs and strong winds. Gil Eanes built a 30-ton barge, with a single mast, a single round sail, partly covered and also oar. With a crew of only 15 men. Gil Eanes on reaching Cape Fear, decided to maneuver westward away from the African coast. After a full day of navigation away from the coast, he found himself in a bay of gentle winds, then turning southeast, and soon realized that he had left Cape Bojador behind. The passage of Cape Bojador was one of the most important landmarks of Portuguese navigation. He overturned the old medieval myths and made way for the great discoveries.

Portuguese navigator João Vaz Corte-Real Discovered Canada in 1422

1488: Cape Folding of Good Hope

Discovered by the Navigator Bartolomeu Dias. The chronicles of the time tell that, as it was sighted after several days in which the sailors suffered violent storms (storms), that navigator called to him the cable of Storms. On returning, however, with the news, King D. João II of Portugal changed his name because, when he was doubled, he showed the connection between the Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean and promised the much-desired arrival in India. He called it, therefore, the Cape of Good Hope.

June 7, 1494: Treaty of Tordesilhas

Signed in the Castelhana village of Tordesillas was the treaty celebrated between the Kingdom of Portugal and the Crown of Castile to divide the lands "discovered and undiscovered" by both crowns outside Europe. The Treaty defined as a line of demarcation the meridian 370 leagues west of the island of Santo Antão in the archipelago of Cape Verde. This line was located midway between these (then Portuguese) islands and the Caribbean islands discovered by Columbus.

1497-1499: Discovery of the maritime route to India

Under the command of the Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama during the reign of King D. Manuel I. One of the most remarkable voyages of the era of the discoveries.

April 22, 1500: Discovery of Brazil

Fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral to the territory where today is located Brazil. Pedro Alvares Cabral departed in March with 1300 crew members in order to reach India, due to a great storm the navy was forced to change its route to the southwest, eventually arriving in South America, Vera Cruz Island.

23 de Maio de 1536
Instituída a Inquisição em Portugal.

August 4, 1578: Battle of Alcácer Quibir

Battle fought in the north of Morocco near the town of Alcacer Quibir between Tangier and Fez. The Portuguese led by king D. Sebastião fought a great Moroccan army led by the sultan Mulei Moluco that enjoyed the Ottoman support. The battle resulted in the Portuguese defeat, with the disappearance in combat of the king D. Sebastião and the imprisonment or death of the cream of the Portuguese nobility. The myth of Sebastianism is born: "In the end I will end my life and see all that I was so fond of my country that not only did I content myself to die in it, but with it," Luis de Camões.

December 1, 1640: Restoration of Independence

It is the designation given to the revolutionary coup d'etat occurred on December 1, 1640, headed by a group called the Forty Conjurated and that spread throughout the Kingdom, by the Portuguese revolt against the attempt to annul the independence of the Kingdom of Portugal for the governance of the Castilian Filipino dynasty, which culminates in the establishment of the 4th Portuguese Dynasty - the house of Braganza - with the acclamation of King John IV.

November 1, 1755: Lisbon earthquake

Resulting in almost complete destruction of the city of Lisbon, especially in the Baixa area, and still affecting much of the Algarve and Setúbal coast. The earthquake was followed by a tsunami - believed to have reached the height of 20 meters - and multiple fires, making more than 10,000 dead. It was one of the deadliest earthquakes in history. Seismologists estimate that the 1755 earthquake hit magnitudes between 8.7 and 9 on the Richter scale.

October 18, 1807: First Napoleonic Invasion

Inserted in the plan of Napoleon to impose the Continental Blockade to the whole Europe. Portugal does not accept this blockade and as a consequence, a French army commanded by General Junot invades Portugal resulting in the flight of the royal family to Brazil (1807-1821). With the help of the English army commanded by Wellington the French troops are defeated and forced to leave Portugal.

August 24, 1820: Liberal Revolution

The merchant bourgeoisie saw its business threatened by the opening of Brazilian ports to international trade. The Porto Garrison felt revolted by the lack of payment. The discontented merchants of the city initiate the revolution with the support of all the social layers (Nobility, Clergy and Portuguese Army). There is a liberal revolutionary movement that marked the end of the Old Regime and established a Constitutional Monarchy.
Mar 2017
Matosinhos Portugal
Dates that marked Portugal.

February 1, 1908: Regicide

Occurred in the Commerce Square (at the time better known as Terreiro do Paço) in Lisbon, profoundly marked the History of Portugal, as it resulted in the death of King Carlos and his son and heir, Prince Real Luis Filipe de Bragança, marking the end of the last serious attempt to reform the Constitutional Monarchy and, consequently, a new escalation of violence in public life in the country.

October 5, 1910

Implementation of the Republic - was the result of a revolution organized by the Portuguese Republican Party, started on the 2nd and victorious in the dawn of October 5, 1910, which overthrew the constitutional monarchy and implemented a republican regime in Portugal.

May 28, 1926: Military Dictatorship

Nationalistic and anti-parliamentary military coup that put an end to the First Portuguese Republic. Act that leads to the implantation of the Military Dictatorship, with the publication of a dictatorial decree that appointed General Carmona for president of the Republic.

1930 - 1974: Salazarism

António de Oliveira Salazar, a young economist born in Santa Comba Dão, a seminarian, a man from Catholic Action, became Head of Government, in 1933, he consolidated his dictatorship by approving a new constitution with a corporate and confessional basis and dissolving political parties. Thus the New State is born. Between 1939 and 1945 Portugal does not enter World War II, Salazar, sympathizer of Mussolini and of Hitler, when it begins to see that its defeats are close ally to the Americans yielding some bases in the Azores to the allied forces.

February 4, 1961: Colonial War

Period of clashes between the Portuguese Armed Forces and the forces organized by the liberation movements of the former overseas provinces of Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique between 1961 and 1974.

September 23, 1968: Takeover Marcelo Caetano

Salazar falls out of his chair and becomes very sick. Operated on 4 September 1968 to brain hematoma caused by the famous fall of the chair, Salazar worsens, and doctors declare their physical and psychological inability to remain in the exercise of their functions. The President of the Republic, Américo Tomas, dismisses Oliveira Salazar, a fact that the old dictator will ignore until the end, and a theater is set up around him to think that he still has in his hands the destinies of Portugal. After hearing about 40 personalities of the political elites, military, as well as financial figures of the regime, President Américo Tomas designates for the place of Salazar the Prof. Marcelo Caetano.

April 25, 1974: Carnation Revolution - At dawn on April 25, MFA soldiers occupied the Radio Clube Português studios and, through radio, explained to the population that they wanted the country to be a democracy again. They put in the air songs that the dictatorship did not like, like Grândola Vila Morena one of the songs that was part of the code signals to give the start of the operations these were songs of Paulo de Carvalho and Zeca Afonso. At the same time, a military column with tanks, commanded by Captain Salgueiro Maia, leaves the Practical School of Cavalry in Santarém, and marches to Lisbon. In the capital, he takes positions with the ministries and then around the headquarters of the GNR do Carmo, where he had taken refuge in Marcelo Caetano, Salazar's successor at the head of the dictatorship. During the day, the population of Lisbon went to join the military. What was a coup d'etat becomes a real revolution. At one point a flower vendor begins to distribute carnations, the soldiers starting to stick the nail into the barrel of the shotgun and the civilians put the flower to the chest. The carnation revolution is born. Late in the afternoon, Marcelo Caetano surrenders and hands over power to General Spinola. A year later the Portuguese vote for the first time in freedom.

12 June 1985: Accession to the European Union

Portugal signed the Treaty of Accession to the European Economic Community (EEC). Prime Minister Mário Soares led the delegation that formalized, in the Jerónimos Monastery, the country's entry into the European project.

( Portugal still has more dates to tell about its history,which I did not mention. )

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