Houston

Dec 2018
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#1
Five Houston police officers were shot Monday while responding to a call in a residential neighborhood, according to news reports.

5 police officers shot in Houston during exchange of gunfire in neighborhood


HOUSTON, Texas (KTRK) --
In law enforcement audio, police dispatchers scrambled to coordinate help for five officers shot while serving a warrant in southeast Houston.

'We need more ambulances!': 911 audio captures chaos


An arrest warrant is a warrant issued by a judge or magistrate on behalf of the state, which authorizes the arrest and detention of an individual, or the search and seizure of an individual's property.

valid arrest warrant must be issued by a neutral judge or magistrate, who has determined there is probable cause for an arrest, based upon sworn testimony or an affidavit in support of the petition for a warrant.[10] The arrest warrant must specifically identify the person to be arrested.[11] If a law enforcement affiant provides false information or shows reckless disregard for the truth when providing an affidavit or testimony in support of an arrest warrant, that may constitute grounds to invalidate the warrant.[10]

These minimum requirements stem from the language contained in the Fourth Amendment. Federal statute and most jurisdictions mandate the issuance of an arrest warrant for the arrest of individuals for most misdemeanors that were not committed within the view of a police officer.[12] However, as long as police have the necessary probable cause, a warrant is usually not needed to arrest someone suspected of a felony in a public place; these laws vary from state to state.[13] In a non-emergency situation, an arrest of an individual in their home requires an arrest warrant.

Arrest warrant - Wikipedia


So the difference between responding to a call in a residential neighborhood and serving a 'warrant' for arrest are not the same.
 
Dec 2018
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For an 'arrest warrant':
Probable cause can be based on either direct observation by the police officer, or on hearsay information provided by others. Information the police bring to the neutral and detached magistrate must establish that—considering the police officer's experience and trainingthe officer knows facts, either through personal observation or through hearsay, that would suggest to a reasonable, prudent person that the individual named in the warrant committed or was committing a crime.

From 1964 to 1983, a constitutionally adequate affidavit comprised exclusively or primarily of hearsay information had to have contained information suggesting to the examining magistrate that (1) the hearsay declarant supplying the information to the police was a credible person, and (2) that the hearsay declarant had a strong basis of knowledge for the alleged facts.[16] Since 1983, a constitutionally sufficient affidavit must support a conclusion by a reviewing magistrate that the "totality of the circumstances" suggest that there is a fair probability that the facts the police relied on for probable cause to arrest are valid; the magistrate balances “the relative weights of all the various indicia of reliability (and unreliability) attending an informant's tip.

Arrest warrant - Wikipedia
 
Dec 2018
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#3
Either way, these non police persons who were involved in the 'shooting' either were being 'non cooperative' with a 'warrant' or these persons were 'taken aback' by a sudden appearance of police due to a 'call' a neighbor in the residential neighborhood could have made.
 
Dec 2018
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A misdemeanor (American English,[1] spelled misdemeanour in British English) is any "lesser" criminal act in some common law legal systems. Misdemeanors are generally punished less severely than felonies, but theoretically more so than administrative infractions (also known as minor, petty, or summary offences) and regulatory offences. Many misdemeanors are punished with monetary fines.

Misdemeanor - Wikipedia


A valid arrest warrant must be issued by a neutral judge or magistrate, who has determined there is probable cause for an arrest, based upon sworn testimony or an affidavit in support of the petition for a warrant.[10] The arrest warrant must specifically identify the person to be arrested.[11] If a law enforcement affiant provides false information or shows reckless disregard for the truth when providing an affidavit or testimony in support of an arrest warrant, that may constitute grounds to invalidate the warrant.[10]

These minimum requirements stem from the language contained in the Fourth Amendment. Federal statute and most jurisdictions mandate the issuance of an arrest warrant for the arrest of individuals for most misdemeanors that were not committed within the view of a police officer.


Probable cause can be based on either direct observation by the police officer, or on hearsay information provided by others.

Information the police bring to the neutral and detached magistrate must establish that-
1. considering the police officer's experience and training -
2. the officer knows facts, either through personal observation or through hearsay, that would suggest to a reasonable, prudent person that the individual named in the warrant committed or was committing a crime.


Federal statute and most jurisdictions mandate the issuance of an arrest warrant for the arrest of individuals for most misdemeanors that were not committed within the view of a police officer.

Arrest warrant - Wikipedia





Possession of cannabis may be an unclassified misdemeanor in parts of the US.


Depending on the jurisdiction, examples of misdemeanors may include: petty theft, prostitution, public intoxication, simple assault, disorderly conduct, trespass, vandalism, reckless driving, discharging a firearm within city limits, possession of cannabis and in some jurisdictions first-time possession of certain other drugs, and other similar crimes.


Misdemeanor - Wikipedia


However, an 'arrest warrant' is not necessary for an 'arrest' for a felony with probable cause by police officers in a public place.

However, as long as police have the necessary probable cause, a warrant is usually not needed to arrest someone suspected of a felony in a public place; these laws vary from state to state.
 
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Dec 2018
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#6
The term felony, in some common law countries, is defined as a serious crime. The word originates from English common law (from the French medieval word "félonie"), where felonies were originally crimes involving confiscation of a convicted person's land and goods. Other crimes were called misdemeanors. Many common law countries have now abolished the felony/misdemeanor distinction and replaced it with other distinctions, such as between indictable offences and summary offences. A felony is generally considered a crime of high seriousness, but a misdemeanor is not.

Felony - Wikipedia


Felony Warrants. When a person commits a crime but is not arrested in the course of committing an unlawful act, the courts can issue a warrant authorizing the police to arrest and charge the suspect with a crime. There are several different types ofwarrants, and felony arrest warrants are issued for felony crimes.

Felony Warrants | Attorneys.com



What is a Felony
While some crimes may be either misdemeanors or felonies, depending on the exact circumstances, others result in felony charges regardless. These often include:

Felony - Definition, Examples, Degrees, Classes, and Types
 
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Dec 2018
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Cruelty to animals, also called animal abuse, animal neglect or animal cruelty, is the infliction by omission (animal neglect) or by commission by humans of suffering or harm upon any non-human. More narrowly, it can be the causing of harm or suffering for specific achievement, such as killing animals for food or for their fur; opinions differ about the extent of cruelty associated with a given method of slaughter. Cruelty to animals sometimes encompasses inflicting harm or suffering as an end in itself, defined as zoosadism.

Utilitarian advocates argue from the position of costs and benefits and vary in their conclusions as to the allowable treatment of animals. Some utilitarians argue for a weaker approach which is closer to the animal welfare position, whereas others argue for a position that is similar to animal rights. Animal rights theorists criticize these positions, arguing that the words "unnecessary" and "humane" are subject to widely differing interpretations, and that animals have basic rights. They say that the only way to ensure protection for animals is to end their status as property and to ensure that they are never used as commodities.

Cruelty to animals - Wikipedia


Zoosadism is pleasure derived from cruelty to animals. It is part of the Macdonald triad, a set of three behaviors that are considered a precursor to psychopathic behavior.

Zoosadism - Wikipedia


The triad links cruelty to animals, obsession with fire-setting, and persistent bedwetting past a certain age, to violent behaviors, particularly homicidal behavior and sexually predatory behavior.

Enuresis is "unintentional bed-wetting during sleep, persistent after the age of five".[15] The bed-wetting must continue twice a week for at least three consecutive months.

Some authors[who?] continue to speculate that enuresis may be related to firesetting and animal cruelty in some way. One argument is that because persistent bed-wetting beyond the age of five can be humiliating for a child, especially if he or she is belittled by a parental figure or other adult as a result, this could cause the child to use firesetting or cruelty to animals as an outlet for their frustration.[5] Enuresis is an "unconscious, involuntary, and nonviolent act and therefore linking it to violent crime is more problematic than doing so with animal cruelty or firesetting".[16]

According to Douglas and his fellow researchers however, the triad behaviors are not causal when examining a relationship with later predatory behavior, but rather, are predictive of an increased likelihood of future behavior patterns, and give professionals a chance to halt some patterns before they progress.

Macdonald triad - Wikipedia
 
Dec 2018
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#8
Zoophilia is considered a taboo subject in the modern society, yet the reported prevalence rates range from 8.3% to 4.9% for men and 3.6% to 1.9% for women in normal population [4-6]. However, in psychiatric inpatients the prevalence rate of zoophilia is very high (55%) which led to the suggestion that the questions about SCA should be included in the psychiatric clinical interviews [7]. The prevalence of zoophilia in the different parts of the world is not known because of the legal implications and taboo nature of the subject [8]. SCA in 31 United States and many other countries is considered animal abuse and a crime against nature [9,10]. A critical review of the conflicting opinions on zoophilia, its etiology and a comprehensive treatment plan along with some pertinent questions for future research are presented in a recent article by the present author [11].

Zoonotic diseases or zoonoses are the diseases of animals that can be transmitted from animals to humans. Although over 200 zoonoses have been identified which can be caused by bacteria, parasites, fungi, and viruses, 39 of them are listed alphabetically and described at the Washington State Department of Health website [12]. Of those zoonoses that can be transmitted by SCA to humans, three most dangerous ones are presented below [13].

Leptospirosis: Any contact with the sexual organs of dogs, cattle, pigs, horses and sheep can transmit this bacterial disease to humans. Leptospirosis can cause Meningitis which leads to death in about 10% of the cases.

Echinococcosis: Parasitic worms from the feces of dogs, cats, and sheep can cause this disease. The worms cause cysts in lungs, liver, brain, spleen, heart, and kidneys. If not treated, this disease can be fatal.

Rabies: One of the most severe of zoonoses, rabies is transmitted from the saliva of cats, dogs and horses. This is a viral infection which affects the central nervous system and is almost always fatal if not treated soon after the exposure.

SCA is also a risk factor for urological diseases among humans. In a study of 118 penile cancer patients, 44.9% patients had reported SCA leading to a conclusion that sex with animals is a risk factor for penile cancer and may be associated with venereal diseases [3]. The authors of this study suggested health campaigns to promote the refutation of sex with animals and condom use or other protective methods to minimize the risks. Due to the high prevalence and associated risks for penile cancer and possibly sexually transmitted diseases, the researchers felt that issue of SCA merits serious scientific attention. Lastly, they suggested that initiatives to eradicate sex with animals should be considered. I agree with their concerns and suggestions for prevention of many possible diseases one can acquire due to SCA.

In addition to the diseases one can catch through SCA, there is also the risk of injury that can be caused by large animals such as horses during the sexual intercourse. In 2005, a highly publicized case known as the “Enumclaw Horse Sex Case” became the landmark case to change the bestiality laws of the state of Washington where bestiality was legal since 1976. A 45 years old aerospace engineer for Boeing died after receiving anal sex from a stallion which was videotaped by his friend. The story was reported in The Seattle Times [14]. The large penis of the horse perforated his colon which led to his death. On February 11, 2006, due to the vast publicity of this case, the state of Washington outlawed bestiality and videotaping of any sexual acts/ contact with the dead or alive animals making bestiality a Class C felony punishable by up to five years in prison [15].

According to the World Health Organization, although the zoonoses represent significant public health risks, they are not prioritized by world health systems. Hundreds of thousands of people are affected by these diseases even though most of them can be prevented [16]. A legal offense in many states and countries, zoophilia is an important community health concern of current times. Some United States do not provide needed steps to deal with this crime and downplay the seriousness of zoophilia.

Health Risks of Zoophilia/Bestiality



huh?
 
Dec 2018
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#9
Did you know that right now it’s entirely legal for a man, or woman, in Texas to walk into a pet store, buy a dog, take that dog home and then have sex with it?

The facts will make you sick

Provided he doesn’t cause the animal any pain, in the eyes of the law, that man has done nothing wrong. You can also do it in chilly Finland or on the beaches of Hawaii as well as in Japan and certain parts of Australia, which also do not prohibit sexual activities between humans and animals.

5 years ago you could do it in many more countries, including such paragons of modern civilisation as Sweden and Denmark and more than a handful of US States, according to the animal law centre at Michigan State University.


These facts will probably make you feel surprised, and quite possibly angry or sick as well, but they're true.

One point of (slight) comfort before we continue, it is totally illegal in South Africa, and has been for centuries.

Humans having sex with animals is called bestiality, and it isn't nearly as rare as you might think. Estimates of prevalence vary, but by any estimation the numbers are still substantial. Writing in the 1940’s, famed sexual researcher Alfred Kinsey estimated that 8% of men and 3.6% of women had engaged in some sort of sexual act with an animal.

However, these figures were disputed in academia due to the fact that an unreasonably high proportion of the subjects in Kinsey's widely-cited study were prisoners. Also, a later study in 1974 by Morton M Hunt put the prevalence of men and women having intimate relations with animals at 4.9% and 1.9% respectively.

Risk factor for penile cancer

When researching the topic, one isn't surprised to find that few academic institutions have conducted serious studies on the matter, making it difficult to find strong estimates for the prevalence today. One recent paper which sought to find a link between sex with animals and penile cancer has offered a little insight, however.

The study, which took place in Brazil and was published in the Journal of Sexual Medicine, found a 34% prevalence of bestiality amongst men, most of whom were from rural backgrounds, as well as determining that it was a risk factor for penile cancer.

You might also have heard the term zoophilia, and how does this differ from bestiality? In practice, the concepts are very close together but still different in one crucial aspect. Bestiality refers to the actual act of engaging in sexual intercourse with an animal, regardless of the motivation and circumstances.

Zoophilia refers more to the bigger picture of people who have a desire to form sexual relationships with animals. Not all zoophiles necessarily engage in acts of bestiality, but the vast majority do, hence the two terms often being used interchangeably.


The most common animals involved are dogs, followed by horses. Other farm animals such as donkeys, sheep, camels and even chickens are also popular choices. Both male and female animals can be involved depending on the preferences of the human regarding penetrating, or being penetrated.

However, while zoophilia is more present in people who live or work on farms, it is certainly far from absent in cities and towns. A widely publicised documentary by Vice, subtly titled Animal Fu*kers, focused on the sexual exploits of two Danish citizens, both of whom lived in urban areas and regularly engaged in sexual intercourse with animals. Outrage in the wake of the documentary quickly turned to pressure and the government outlawed sexual acts featuring animals in October last year.

It would be naïve to suggest, though, that the problem disappeared after the laws changed. Even in situations where zoophilia is legal, it is still far from socially acceptable, and so those who indulge in it are used to keeping quiet. Instead, zoophiles tend to communicate and congregate through societies, like the Germany-based Zoophiles Engagement für Toleranz und Aufklärung, as well as dedicated websites which offer a judgement-free space to converse.

The largest such site, BeastForum, claims over 1.2 million registered members at the time of writing as well as more than that number again in unregistered visitors. The forum has boards where members can share tips on getting their animals to participate as well as post pictures and videos of their sexual experiences with the animals.

These discussion are bracingly open and descriptive. Almost all of the forum’s boards are updated with new posts daily and the General topics board alone receives dozens of posts every day. The majority of these posts are well-written, coherent and spark spirited conversation and suggestions. This niche is not simply reserved for rural or uneducated people, these people are bank managers, physiotherapists and teachers, and there are lots of them.

The size of the community, and thus the demand, has even led to the formation of so-called “bestiality brothels", especially in countries where the practice has been recently outlawed. The Daily Mail brought the issue to light in 2013 after a slew of such brothels were rumoured to exist in Germany, though institutions of this nature are likely to maintain a low profile given their illegality. Such buildings host an array of animals, with which paying visitors can engage in intercourse away from the eyes of the law.

Certain cultures enshrine the practice of having sex with animals, such as those on the northern coast of Colombia. A second documentary by Vice, entitled Asses of the Caribbean (Warning: VERY NSFW), documented the widespread practice of pubescent boys having sex with donkeys. In this deeply Catholic culture, women generally do not have sex until marriage and until that time, many young men “practice” on donkeys believing it will improve their sexual prowess and increase the size of their genitals. This practice is widespread and socially accepted, with one man in particular who continued his interspecies relationships even after getting married.

In South Africa, there have been a number of cases of bestiality that have caught the attention of local news. In 2013 News24 reported on the case of a Pretoria woman found guilty of having sex with two dogs. Three years earlier, an Mpumalanga man was shot after resisting arrest when police found him having sex with a pig. These are just two of many cases that have been brought before South African courts, with many prosecutions following.

Zoophilia falls under the category of paraphilias, which are defined as sexual preferences that are highly unusual. Besides zoophilia, these include relatively tame fetishes such as an attraction to older women, or the desire to have sex on camera, to extreme outliers such as anthropophagolagnia which is the desire to rape and then eat another human being. How people come to develop paraphilias is a matter of debate, with both genetic and environmental causes being posited.

Bestiality is much, much more common than you think
 
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This case report of 18 year old male presented here highlighted the importance of psychological assessment to emphasize on its implications for the further risk assessment of the person, family psycho-education and non-pharmacological intervention for bestialists. The overall assessment suggested of absence of any brain dysfunction and active psychopathology, average intelligence (IQ) and intact cognitive functioning. The findings portrayed physical and sexual inadequacies, emotional and sexual immaturity, difficulty in emotional attachment, internalized hostility, voyeuristic tendencies and infantile social behaviour, excitement seeker, inability to delay gratification of impulses, lacks empathy, poor self-discipline, less conscientiousness and less sensitive to criticism. The report also emphasized the role of child sexual abuse on sexual behavior later life.

Bestiality is a type of sexual offence in which animal is used as a medium for satisfying sexual desire without developing any kind of emotional bonding.(1) Bestiality is perceived in some society as a modality to cure sexually transmitted disease but in reality it is a punishable offence as per Indian legal system (Sec 377 IPC).(2) Moreover, a person who had engaged in childhood bestiality is more likely to commit adult interpersonal crimes and should be taken as a warning signal by the society.(3) Early identification of risk factors and psychopathology in bestiality case by psychological analysis are lacking in India, making this case worth to publish.


Case report

An 18-year old unmarried, non-literate male of low socioeconomic status brought to the emergency department for medical examination with an alleged history of bestiality. The patient had 6 siblings and he was 3rd in birth order. The family lived in an unhygienic location where dairy farms are being operated. He had committed sexual intercourse with two calves and during the act one calf died. Human DNA was detected from the [***] and [private part(s)'] swabs of calves in a forensic science laboratory which confirmed the allegation. The patient had not shown any feeling of guilt or remorse associated with the death of a calf and admited about the heterosexual practice which listed the case in the category of bestiality.

As reported by the patient, the significant life events during his childhood and adolescence contained witnessing domestic violence (father and brother beating their wives), death of mother when he was 13 years old, and started consuming alcohol at the age of 16 years. Another key life experience warranted a special mention was that he was sexually abused (sodomy) by adult males multiple times at the age of 10-11 years.

After taking written consent (left thumb impression after patient information sheet), the interviews and psychological assessments were carried out. For cognitive functioning, PGI Memory Scale, Bhatia Short Battery of Performance- Revised, and Verbal Adult Intelligence (VAIS), were used. Along with that Draw a Person Test 16 Personality Factors (16-PF), Millon's Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) were administered as part of personality test (both objective and projective). The person was conscious, communicative, motivated and cooperative during the assessments. He reported full comprehension of the test instructions.


An Adolescent with Bestiality Behaviour: Psychological Evaluation and Community Health Concerns

An Adolescent with Bestiality Behaviour: Psychological Evaluation and Community Health Concerns
 

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