There Are More Things in Heaven and Earth, Horatio, Than Are Dreamt of in Our Philosophy

Sep 2018
5,666
946
cleveland ohio
#1
John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill, influential 19th century English thinker of liberalism who adopted some socialist views
The main liberal English thinker John Stuart Mill's early economic philosophy was one of free markets. However, he accepted interventions in the economy, such as a tax on alcohol, if there were sufficient utilitarian grounds. He also accepted the principle of legislative intervention for the purpose of animal welfare.[11] Mill originally believed that "equality of taxation" meant "equality of sacrifice" and that progressive taxation penalised those who worked harder and saved more and was therefore "a mild form of robbery".[12]
Given an equal tax rate regardless of income, Mill agreed that inheritance should be taxed. A utilitarian society would agree that everyone should be equal one way or another. Therefore, receiving inheritance would put one ahead of society unless taxed on the inheritance. Those who donate should consider and choose carefully where their money goes—some charities are more deserving than others. Considering public charities boards such as a government will disburse the money equally. However, a private charity board like a church would disburse the monies fairly to those who are in more need than others.[13]
Mill later altered his views toward a more socialist bent, adding chapters to his Principles of Political Economy in defence of a socialist outlook and defending some socialist causes.[14] Within this revised work, he also made the radical proposal that the whole wage system be abolished in favour of a co-operative wage system. Nonetheless, some of his views on the idea of flat taxation remained,[15] albeit altered in the third edition of the Principles of Political Economy to reflect a concern for differentiating restrictions on "unearned" incomes, which he favoured; and those on "earned" incomes, which he did not favour.[16]
Mill's Principles of Political Economy, first published in 1848, was one of the most widely read of all books on economics in the period.[17] As Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations had during an earlier period, Mill's Principles of Economy dominated economics teaching. In the case of Oxford University, it was the standard text until 1919 when it was replaced by Alfred Marshall's Principles of Economics.
At some point, Mill also promoted substituting capitalist businesses with worker cooperatives, saying:
The form of association, however, which if mankind continue to improve, must be expected in the end to predominate, is not that which can exist between a capitalist as chief, and work-people without a voice in the management, but the association of the labourers themselves on terms of equality, collectively owning the capital with which they carry on their operations, and working under managers elected and removable by themselves.​
Born Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin

By federalism, Bakunin meant the organization of society "from the base to the summit—from the circumference to the center—according to the principles of free association and federation."[54] Consequently, society would be organized "on the basis of the absolute freedom of individuals, of the productive associations, and of the communes," with "every individual, every association, every commune, every region, every nation" having "the absolute right to self-determination, to associate or not to associate, to ally themselves with whomever they wish."

The dispute between Bakunin and Karl Marx highlighted the differences between anarchism and Marxism. He strongly rejected Marx's concept of the "dictatorship of the proletariat", a concept that vanguardist socialism including Marxist–Leninism would use to justify one-party rule from above by a party 'representing' the proletariat.[57] Bakunin insisted that revolutions must be led by the people directly while any "enlightened elite" must only exert influence by remaining "invisible...not imposed on anyone...[and] deprived of all official rights and significance".[58] He held that the state should be immediately abolished because all forms of government eventually lead to oppression.[57] Libertarian Marxists argue Marx used the phrase to mean the worker control at the point of production, not a party, would still be a state until society is reorganized according to socialist principles.
They [the Marxists] maintain that only a dictatorship—their dictatorship, of course—can create the will of the people, while our answer to this is: No dictatorship can have any other aim but that of self-perpetuation, and it can beget only slavery in the people tolerating it; freedom can be created only by freedom, that is, by a universal rebellion on the part of the people and free organization of the toiling masses from the bottom up.​
— Mikhail Bakunin, Statism and Anarchism[59]
[W]e are convinced that liberty without socialism is privilege and injustice; and that socialism without liberty is slavery and brutality.​
— Mikhail Bakunin, Federalism, Socialism, Anti-Theologism, 1867[60]

Mikhail Bakunin - Wikipedia
John Stuart Mill - Wikipedia
and what is in your philosophy?? pray tell ?